Online Santal Resource Page: the Santals identity, clans, living places, culture,rituals, customs, using of herbal medicine, education, traditions ...etc and present status.

The Santal Resource Page: these are all online published sources

Santal Gãota reaḱ onolko ńam lạgit́ SRP khon thoṛ̣a gõṛ̃o ńamoḱa mente ińaḱ pạtiạu ar kạṭić kurumuṭu...

Sunday, December 13, 2009

No. 1/1D/AIASECA/2003 August 12, 2003
Atal Bihari Vajpayee , Hon'ble Prime Minister of India. 2. Shri L. K. Advani, Hon'ble Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Home Affairs; Personnel, Pensions and Public Grievances. 3. Shri T. R. Balu, Hon'ble Minister for Env. & Forests. 4. Shri Sukhdev Singh Dhindsa, Hon'ble Minister for Chemicals & Fertilizers. 5. Shri George Fernandes, Hon'ble Minister for Defence. 6. Shri Anant Gangaram Geete, Hon'ble Minister for Power. 7. Shri Syed Shahnawaz Hussain, Hon'ble Minister for Textiles. 8. Shri Jagmohan, Hon’ble Minister for Tourism and Culture. 9. Shri Arun Jaitley, Hon’ble Minister for Law & Justice, Commerce & Industry. 10. Dr. Satyanarayan Jatiya, Hon’ble Minister for Social Justice & Empowerment. 11. Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi, Hon’ble Minister for HRD, S&T. 12. Maj Gen. (Retd.) B. C. Khanduri, AVSM Hon’ble Minister for Road Transport & Highways. 13. Shri Murasoli Maran, Hon’ble Minister. 14. Shri Subodh Mohite, Hon’ble Minister for Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises. 15. Shri Kariya Munda, Hon’ble Minister for Coal. 16. Shri Ram Naik, Hon'ble Minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas. 17. Shri Nitish Kumar, Hon'ble Minister for Railways. 18. Shri Jual Oram, Hon'ble Minister for Tribal Affairs. 19. Shri Kashi Ram Rana, Hon'ble Minister for Rural Development. 20. Shri Arjun Charan Sethi, Hon'ble Minister for Water Resources. 21. Shri Arun Shourie, Hon'ble Minister for Disinvestment, Communications and IT. 22. Shri Jaswant Singh, Hon'ble Minister for Finance & Company Affairs. 23. Shri Rajnath Singh, Hon'ble Minister for Agriculture. 24. Shri Satrughan Sinha, Hon'ble Minister for Shipping. 25. Shri Yashwant Sinha, Hon'ble Minister for External Affairs. 26. Smt. Sushma Swaraj, Hon'ble Minister for Health & Family Welfare, Parliamentary Affairs. 27. Dr. C. P. Thakur, Hon'ble Minister for SSI, Development of NE Region. 28. Dr. Sahib Singh Verma, Hon'ble Minister for Labour. 29. Shri Vikram Verma, Hon'ble Minister for Youth Affairs and Sports. 30. Shri Sharad Yadav, Hon'ble Minister for Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution.
Sub: Santali Language – Inclusion in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution regarding
Respected Sir,
This has reference to the media reports pertaining to the decision of the Union Cabinet on 31st July, 2003 to include Bodo Language as 19th language in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. The decision of the Cabinet is highly appreciable and we the members of this Association express our deep gratitude to the Union Cabinet for deciding to include a tribal language in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. We, at the same time, are hopeful that the Union Cabinet shall take a decision soon to include “Santali” language in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.
It will not be out of place to mention here that Santali is an independent language spoken by over 7 million to 8 million people. The speakers of this language are spread mainly in the states of Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar and Assam. The Santali speakers are also spread across the border namely in Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar. The existence of script “Ol Chiki” for the language has been a tool of uniformity across the states. The demand for its inclusion is as old as the Constitution of India itself.
Some of the important developments vis-à-vis implementation of Santali language in the country are given below:
Primary Education in Santali has already started in the States of Orissa and West Bengal. Government of Jharkhand has already initiated actions in this regard;
Govt. of West Bengal has officially recognized “Ol Chiki” as the script of the Santali language since 1979;
Passing of a unanimous resolution by the West Bengal Assembly seeking recognition of Santali language and forwarded the same to the Central Government for taking appropriate action;
Santali has been introduced in the Secondary Board Examination in West Bengal;
West Bengal Government vide resolution dated 5.3.2001 had constituted a “Committee on Santali Language” to examine and review the feasibility of teaching of Santali language in Ol Chiki script under the Chairmanship of Dr. Pabitra Sarkar, Ex-Vice Chancellor of Rabindra Bharati Viswa Vidyalaya. The Committee has submitted its report recommending among other things due recognition for Santali language for overall development of the community. The recommendations are under implementation by the Government of West Bengal;
Sidhu Kanhu Murmu University, Dumka, Jharkhand offers a BA and an MA course in Santali;
Ranchi University offers MA course in Santali;
Vinova Bhave University, Jharkhand offers Santali in Intermediate of Arts;
A number of published Books both Literary and Text books , Journals, Periodicals are available;
A living and rich language continuously being deprived of recognition from Central Government which affects its further development in general and community development in particular.
It may be mentioned that the demand has been brought to the kind notice of Hon’ble Prime Minister and other concerned among others by Shri Salkhan Murmu, Hon’ble M.P. and Mrs. Droupadi Murmu, Hon’ble Minister, Govt. of Orissa. Hon’ble M.Ps. namely Shri Basudeb Acharia, Dr. Ram Chandra Dome, Shri Rupchand Murmu, Smt. Sandhya Bauri, Prof. Rasa Singh Rawat, Shri M. A. Kharabela Swain et al have from time to time demanded in the Parliament to include this language in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. Moreover, recent announcement of Shri Arjun Munda, Hon’ble Chief Minister of Jharkhand to include this language in the Eighth Schedule by 15th of November, 2003 has raised the hope of the Santal people to the zenith.
Considering the above, we appeal to the Union Cabinet to take a decision to include this language in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. It would be a gift to the Santal people from the Central Government on the eve of ensuing Birth Centenary Year (2004-05) of Pandit Raghunath Murmu, the inventor of Ol Chiki. We also sincerely hope and appeal to leaders of other political parties to extend their support for this genuine cause.
Thanking you,
Yours faithfully,
(P. C. Hembram)
General Secretary
Copy for kind information and necessary action to:
1. Smt. Sonia Gandhi, Hon’ble Leader of the Opposition, Lok Sabha
2. Shri Arjun Munda, Hon’ble Chief Minister, Jharkhand
3. Shri Babulal Marandi, Hon’ble Ex-Chief Minister, Jharkhand
4. Shri Somnath Chatterjee, Hon’ble M.P.
5. Shri Salkhan Murmu, Hon’ble M.P.
6. Shri Basudeb Acharia, Hon’ble M.P.
7. Dr. Ram Chandra Dome, Hon’ble M.P.
8. Smt. Sandhya Bauri, Hon’ble M.P.
9. Shri M.A. Kharabela Swain, Hon’ble M.P.
10. Shri Shibu Soren, Hon’ble M.P.
11. Shri Rupchand Murmu, Hon’ble M.P.
12. Prof. Rasa Singh Rawat, Hon’ble M.P.
13. Shri Prithibi Majhi, Hon’ble Speaker, Assam Legislative Assembly
14. Smt. Joba Manjhi, Hon’ble Minister, Govt. of Jharkhand
15. Smt. Droupadi Murmu, Hon’ble Minister, Govt. of Orissa
16. Shri Upen Kisku, Hon’ble Minister, Govt. of West Bengal
17. Shri Maheswar Murmu, Hon’ble Minister, Govt. of West Bengal
18. Shri Chaitanya Prasad Majhi, Hon’ble Ex-Minister, Govt. of Orissa
19. Smt. Saraswati Hembram, Hon’ble Ex-Minister, Govt. of Orissa
20. ASECAs (Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal)
21. Adim Owar Jarpa, Bhubaneswar, Jumid Kherwal, Cuttack

(P. C. Hembram)
General Secretary




Memorandum for inclusion of Santali Language in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution

Memorandum for inclusion of Santali Language in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution

New Delhi17th December, 1999

Shri A. B. Vajpayee,Hon'ble Prime Minister of India,South Block,New Delhi
Sub: Memorandum for inclusion of Santali Language in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution
Respected Sir,
We the members of Santali Bhasa Morcha having whole hearted support from Adibasi Socio-Educational and Cultural Association (WB), All India Santali Writers' Association, All India Majhi Madwa, All Santal Students' Association, All India Santal Welfare and Cultural Society, All Adivasi Students Association of Assam and many other organizations of India hereby respectfully submit this memorandum for your kind notice and favourable consideration that:
1. The Santals are the most primitive and the original sons of this vast sub-continent - India. The Santals have been living in this great country from time immemorial. Some of the historians assert that they existed before the advent of Aryans. In the eastern states of India i.e. Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa and Tripura etc. having a population of over 1 crore. Besides, a sizable population of this community is also in Bangladesh, Nepal, Mauritius, Trinidad, Tobago etc. These people have got their rich cultural heritage, social customs and language foundation. The Santal Community (tribal) belongs to an Austric group.
2. The Santali is the front runner language in the Austric group and spoken by over one crore people.
3. The Santali has got the strong literacy foundation with about 200 magazines and journals published (weekly to yearly) every year. Three hundred books are being published in their own personal efforts. About 500 writers are engaged in promoting this language and literature.
4. Many literary and cultural societies have been established to promote Art, Literature and Culture through this language all over the country. This language has got a private academy and many publishers and printing presses. A large number of literary publication, Drama, Novels, Short Stories, Poems, Grammar evidently highlight the richness of the language to any kind of expression.
5. Like many other prominent languages of the country, it has its own script too. This script is popularly known as 'OL CHIKI' invented by Late Pandit Raghunath Murmu, D. Litt. It is a very scientific script. It is phonetically sound and suits the speakers of the language. It is very appropriate to the sound system of the Santali language. It is easy and its physibility cannot be questioned.
6. The Santali language has found a place in mass communication media. The All India Radio has recognized this language. The transmission of programmes have already been started from various centers of All India Radio. The All India Radio, Calcutta relaying a daily news bulletin in its half an hour programme. The other cultural programmes from Cuttack, Jamshedpur, Ranchi, Chaibasa, Bhagalpur, Dumka, Keonjhar, Baripada and other centres. Doordarshan Kendra, Calcutta is also relaying 20 minutes programme twice in a month.
7. The Government of West Bengal has already recognized 'OL-CHIKI' as an only script for writing 'Santali' Language in 1979 and it accorded a grand reception to Late Pandit Raghunath Murmu, the inventor of OL-CHIKI script in the same year in recognition of his great invention. It also published text books in Santali in OL-CHIKI script and 600 Santali teachers have been trained to teach 'Santali' Language in OL-CHIKI script. Although it had not yet been implemented.
Besides, the Govt. of Orissa has also started teaching 'Santali' Language in OL-CHIKI script in 30 primary schools.
In Govt. of Bihar, Santali language is being taught from school to university level.
8. The Bhagalpur University, Ranchi University and Sido-Kanhu university of Bihar provide scope for Post Graduate studies in Santali language. The U.G.C. also provides Fellowship for higher studies in Santali language and literature.
9. The frequent and wide circulation of this language made it rich. A large number of literary work considerable merits have made this language famous. Some talented writers of this language have written many interesting Novels, Short Stories and Poems. A large number of Grammar and Dictionary books also have been published in this language.
10. The number of Santali speaking people is much larger than the number of the people speaking Nepali, Konkani, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Manipuri, which have already got their berth in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution of India in 1992 or before. But it is very unfortunate to note that none of the Austric group of language has been included in the 8th Schedule as yet.
11. We feel proud to mention that Dr. Doman Sahu, 'Samir' has been given award for his contribution to the Santali language and literature by the Central Sahitya Academy. This proves beyond doubt that Santali language deserves inclusion into the 8th Schedule of the Constitution immediately.
12. The Union Govt. headed by you has promised to constitute a High Powered Body to go into details for inclusion of the Santali language into the 8th Schedule of the Constitution. We are very optimistic about this move and believe that the Govt. will ultimately do justice to this language.
In addition to our basic demand for immediate inclusion of the Santali language in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution, we also emphatically demand from the Central as well as State Governments of Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa and Assam for the following:-
a) Inclusion of Santali language with 'OL CHIKI' script from primary to Higher level of education in the 4 states
b) Inclusion of Santali language programmes in the Television and All India Radio in the 4 states.

Johar and with kind regards,
Yours faithfully,
1. Salkhan Murmu, MP & President Santali Bhasa Morcha2. Baidyanath Saren, President, Adibasi Socio-Educational and Cultural Association (WB)3. Dukhi Ram Hansda, Gen. Secretary, Adibasi Socio-Educational and Cultural Association (WB)4. Saheb Ram Murmu, Vice President, Santali Bhasa Morcha5. D.R. Mardi (Advocate), Treasurer, Santali Bhasa Morcha6. Bishu Murmu, President, Bihar Unit, Santali Bhasa Morcha7. Kisun Soren, President, Adim Owar Jarpa, Bhubaneswar, Orissa8. Joseph Minz, Gen. Secretary, All Adivasi Students' Association, Assam9. Gurupada Saren, Member, All India Santali Welfare and Cultural Society, New Delhi10. Mangal Saren, Gen. Secretary, All Santal Students Association, West Bengal11. Ram Chandra Manjhi, Astt. Gen. Secretary, All India Santali Writers Association12. Jagat Tudu, President, Santal Educational and Cultural Association, Mayurbhanj13. Baiju Majhi, Advisor, Jumid Kherwal, Cuttack14. N. N. Hembram, President, All India Majhi Madwa15. Keshab Ch. Saren, Secretary, Kherwal Itun Asra, Sagendih, Jhargram16. Isor Ch. Besra, Advisor, Marshal Yuvak Sangh, Mayurdor, Mayurbhanj, Orissa



The 'Santals' are the largest tribal community in India, found mainly in the states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam, and Orissa. There is also a significant Santal minority in neighboring Bangladesh.


Santali language and anthropology
Santali language is part of the Austro-Asiatic family, distantly related to Vietnamese and Khmer. The long history of the Santals may be traced from the age of human migration that started from Africa.Lot of recent findings bring the theory that human from Africa had started to migrate eastward that is in Asia. A few of the Indian anthropologist also believe the fact that human first came in India about 65000-55000 years ago. The earliest of them were Proto Australoids followed by the Proto Dravidians. The Proto Australoids can be identified with some facial characteristics such as low forehead, thick lips, wide jaw and wavy hair .Historians believe that they were the ancestors of the tribal community residing in the eastern part of India (excluding hilly portions).So the Santals, Kols and Mundas may be the descendants of them.But in those times they were mainly in the Neanderthal stage that is their primary way of subsistence were hunting and food gathering. As many of contemporaries in Africa and other parts of Asia . The agrarian way of living was brought by the Aryans who came about in the 1500 B.C. Some of the inhabitants of the Mohenjo –Daro civilization that existed in the Pakistan and parts of India were also may be originally Proto-Australoids as may be inferred from their sculptures and statues of the dancing girl and others. How the Mohenjo- Daro civilization annihilated is a big question whether there was an Aryan invasion or a major environmental change that wiped them out is still under research and every day new theories are coming out.Coming back to the history of tribals, the Proto Australoids their earliest ancestors started living in the forest in the eastern part of India .''See Ol Chiki script''The Santali script, or ''Ol Chiki'', is alphabetic, and does not share any of the syllabic properties of the other Indic scripts such as Devanagari. It uses 30 letters and five basic diacritics. It has 6 basic vowels and three additional vowels, generated using the ''Gahla Tudag'' [1].The Santal script is a relatively recent innovation. Santali did not have a written language until the twentieth century and used Latin/Roman, Devnagri and Bangla writing systems. All these scripts are still being widely used and can perfectly convey the unique phenomes of the language. However, a certain section of Santals felt that a distinct script was required to accommodate the Santali language, combining features of both the Indic and Roman scripts. The modern ''Ol Chiki'' script was devised by Pandit Raghunath Murmu in 1925. He wrote over 150 books covering a wide spectrum of subjects such as grammar, novels, drama, poetry, and short stories in Santali using ''Ol Chiki'' as part of his extensive programme for uplifting the Santal community. ''Darege Dhan'', ''Sidhu-Kanhu'', ''Bidu Chandan'' and ''Kherwal Bir'' are among the most acclaimed of his works. Pandit Raghunath Murmu is popularly known as Guru Gomke among the Santals, a title conferred on him by the Mayurbhanj Adibasi Mahasabh.Beside Pandit Raghunath Murmu, very few indian linguists worked seriously on the linguistic aspects of the language. One of them was Dr. Byomkes Chakrabarti. Byomkes Chakrabarti (1923-1981) was a Bengali research worker on ethnic languages. He was a renowned educationist and a poet too.His major contribution was in finding out some basic relationship between Santali language and Bengali language. He showed how the Bengali language has got some unique characteristics, which are absent in other Indian languages, under the influence of Santali language(in 'A Cmparative Study of Santali and Bengali').His contribution was fundamental in nature in the origin and development of the Bengali and Santali language and provided scopes of research in newer fields in liguistics.
Santali culture
The Santali culture has attracted many scholars and anthropologists for decades. The first attempt to study the Santali culture was done by the Christian missionaries. The most famous of them was the Norwegian-born Reverend
Paul Olaf Bodding. Unlike many other tribal groups of the Indian Subcontinent, the Santals are known for preserving their native language despite waves of migrations and invasions from Dravidians, Indo-Aryans, Mughals, Europeans, and others.Santali culture is depicted in the paintings and artworks in the walls of their houses. Local mythology includes the stories of the Santal ancestors Pilchu Haram and Pilchu Bhudi.The Santal people love music and dance. Like other Indian people groups, their culture has been influenced by mainstream Indian culture and by Western culture, but traditional music and dance still remain. Santal music differs from Hindustani classical music in significant ways. Onkar Prasad has done the most recent work on the music of the Santal but others preceded his work. The Santal traditionally accompany many of their dances with two drums: the Tamak' and the Tumdak'. The flute was considered the most important Santal traditional instrument and still evokes feelings of nostalgia for many Santal. Santal dance and music traditionally revolved around Santal religious celebrations. This is still true to a degree although traditional religious beliefs have been significantly altered by Hindu belief and Christian mission work. However, Santal music and dance both retain connections to traditional celebrations. The names of many Santal tunes are derived from the traditional ritual with which they were once associated. Sohrae tunes, for example, were those sung at the Sohrae festival.The Santal community is devoid of any caste system and there is no distinction made on the basis of birth. They believe in supernatural beings and ancestral spirits. Santali rituals are mainly comprised of sacrificial offerings and invocations to the spirits, or ''bongas''. The Santal system of governance, known as Manjhi–Paragana, may be compared to what is often called Local Self Governance. This body is responsible for making decisions to ameliorate the village's socioeconomic condition.
Background of the Rebellion
The insurrection of the Santals was mainly against the corrupt moneylenders, zamindars and their operatives. Before the advents of the British in India they resided peacefully in the hilly districts of Cuttack, Dhalbhum, Manbhum, Barabhum, Chhotanagpur, Palamau, Hazaribagh, Midnapur, Bankura and Birbhum.They started their agrarian way of life by clearing the forest and also engaged themselves in hunting for subsistence.But as the agents of the new colonial rule claimed their rights on the lands of the Santals they peacefully went to reside in the hills of Rajamahal.After a brief period of peace the British operatives with their native counterparts jointly started claiming their rights in this new land as well.The simple and honest Santals were cheated and turned into slaves by the zaminadrs and the money lenders who first appeared to them as business man and allured them first by goods lent to them on loans.These loans however hard a santal tried to repay never ended in fact through corrupt measures of the money lenders it multipled to an amount for which a generation of the santal family had to work as slaves.Furthermore the santali women who worked under labour contractors were disgraced and used . This loss of freedom that once which they enjoyed turned them into rebels and finally they took oath to launch an attack on these axis of evil.

The Santal Rebellion
On 30 June
1855, two Santal rebel leaders, Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu, mobilized ten thousand Santals and declared a rebellion against British colonists. The Santals initially gained some success but soon the British found out a new way to tackle these rebels.As the legend goes that the Santals so skilled in archery could throw arrows extremely accurate and with great power.The British soon understood that there was no point fighting them in the forest but to force them come out of the forest So in a conclusive battle which followed the British equipped with modern firearms and war elephants stationed themselves at the foot of the hill.When the battle began the British officer ordered fire without bullet as the santals could not trace this trap set by the much experienced [British] war strategy charged with full potential .This step proved to be disastrous for them since as soon as they neared the foot of the hill the British army attacked with full power and this time using bullet.Thereafter attacking every village of the santals and making sure that the last drop of revolutionary spirit was annihilated.Although the revolution was brutally suppressed, it marked a great change in the colonial rule and policy. The day is still celebrated among the Santal community with great respect and spirit for the thousands of the Santal martyrs who sacrificed their lives along with their two celebrated leaders to win freedom from the rule of the Jamindars and the British operatives.

Thursday, December 10, 2009

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