Online Santal Resource Page: the Santals identity, clans, living places, culture,rituals, customs, using of herbal medicine, education, traditions ...etc and present status.

The Santal Resource Page: these are all online published sources

Santal Gãota reaḱ onolko ńam lạgit́ SRP khon thoṛ̣a gõṛ̃o ńamoḱa mente ińaḱ pạtiạu ar kạṭić kurumuṭu...

Sunday, October 21, 2012

Kherwar Movement in Jharkhand

Kherwar Movement of 1868 was led by the Santhals. It was initiated by Bhagrit Manjhi. Kherwar Movement is also known as Sapha Har Movement.
 Kherwar Movement started apparently in 1868 and shot into fame under the leadership of Bhagrit Manjhi. It is also known as Sapha Har movement. This movement had popularized the concept of One God as well as aimed at social reform. He demanded that a Santal raj should be introduced. He wanted the Santhals to stop their sacrifices to the "evil bongas". He was arrested in that same year.

Bhagrit Manjhi was arrested in 1868 as an instigator of disturbances. He was active till 1871 and continued his activities during the great famine in Bengal in 1874. He was also sentenced to two years imprisonment. Several Hindu leaders participated.

Kherwars assimilated into Hinduism as Hindu cult elements and the concept of "cleanness" were introduced by the leadership. This development was checked as a result of new and different kinds of tribal mobilization that took place in the 1930s. Kherwars are considered as having the same kind of religious fervour among the Santhals. This movement was basically a tribal movement.

Santhals had little knowledge of the mighty powers of their rulers was limited. They had never imagined that their plans would end in fiasco. The agitation was quelled but the unsatiated yearning freedom continued. Bhagrit Manjhi was like a saint to the Santhals.

The religious mood of the Kherwars was a kind of fervour that was similar to that observed earlier among the Christian converts. Quite a number of the Santhals in Santal Parganas tried to interpret what they understood as the social breakdown of Santal society. Some described the breakdown as a kind of "individualization" using analytical terms. Bhagirath proclaimed himself as the King of Santhals and the representative of God. Bhagirath Kherwar`s movement spread like a wild fire among the Santhals of Santhal Parganas. The Government had to take strong measures to crush it. This movement was quelled by the British.
 
Source: http://www.indianetzone.com/56/kherwar_movement_jharkhand.htm
****************************************************************************










Share:

Karmu and Dharmu

There were once two brothers Karmu and Dharmu. Karmu was a farmer and Dharmu was a trader; once when Dharmu was away from home Karmu gave a religious feast and did not invite Dharmu’s household; when Dharmu returned and learnt this, he told his wife that he also would perform the ceremonies in his house, so they set to work and were employed in cooking rice and vegetables far into the night; and Karam Gosain came down to see what preparations Dharmu was making in his honour, and he watched from the back of the house.

 Just then Dharmu strained off the water from the cooked rice and threw it out of the window, and it fell on Karam Gosain and scalded him, and as the flies and insects worried the wound, Karam Gosain went off to the Ganges and buried himself in the middle of the stream. As he had thus offended Karam Gosain, all Dharmu’s undertakings failed and he fell into deep poverty, and had not even enough to eat, so he had to take service with his brother Karmu. When the time for transplanting the rice came, Dharmu used to plough and dig the ditches and mend the gaps along with the day labourers. Karmu told him not to work himself but act as overseer of the other labourers, and the labourers also told him that it was not suitable for him to work as a labourer himself, but Dharmu said that he must earn his wages and insisted on working; and in the same way Dharmu’s wife might have acted as overseer of the women, but she was ashamed not to work too.
 One day they were transplanting the rice and Karmu brought out breakfast for the labourers; he told Dharmu and his wife to wash their hands and come and eat; but they answered that they belonged to the household and that the hired labourers should be fed first, so the labourers ate and they ate up all the rice and there was nothing left for Dharmu and his wife. When the midday meal was brought the same thing happened, Dharmu and his wife got nothing; but they hoped that it would be made up to them when the wages were paid, and worked on fasting. At evening when they came to pay the wages in kind, Dharmu’s name was called out first, but he told his brother to pay the labourers first, and in doing this the paddy was all used up and there was nothing left for Dharmu and his wife; so they went home sorrowfully and their children cried for food and they had nothing to give them. In the night Dharmu’s wife said “They promised to pay us for merely looking after the work and instead, we worked hard and have still got nothing. We will not work for them anymore; come, let us undo the work we did to-day, you cut down the embankments you repaired, and I will uproot the seedlings which I planted.” So they went out into the night to do this. But whenever Dharmu raised his spade a voice called out “Hold, hold!” And whenever his wife put out her hand to pull up the rice a voice called out “Hold, hold!” Then they said “Who are you who stop us?” And the voice answered “You have done evil and offended Karam Gosain by scalding him; this is why you have become poor and to-day have worked without food and without wages; he has gone to the Ganges and you must go and propitiate him.” And they asked how they should propitiate him, and the voice said “Grind turmeric and put it on a plate, and buy new cloth and dye it with turmeric and make ready oil and take these things to the Ganges and call on Karam Gosain.” And they believed the voice and the next day did as it commanded, and set off, leaving their children in charge of Karmu. On the way they came to a fig-tree full of figs and they went to eat the fruit; but when they got near they found that all the figs were full of grubs, and they sang:—
“Exhausted by hunger we came to a fig-tree,
And found it full of grubs,
O Karam Gosain, how far off are you?”
Then they came to a mango tree and the same thing happened. And they went on and saw a cow with a calf; and they thought that they would milk the cow and drink the milk, but when they went to catch it it ran away from them and would not let itself be caught; and they sang:—
“We go to catch the cow and it runs away,
We go to catch the calf and it runs away,
O Karam Gosain how far off are you?”
But the cow said to them—“Go to the banks of the Ganges.” Then they came to a buffalo and went to milk it, but it lowered its head and charged them; and Dharam cried but his wife said “Don’t cry” and sang:—
“If you go to catch the buffalo, Dharmu,
It will kill you.
How shall we drink milk? How shall we drink milk?
How far off are you, O our Karam Gosain?”
And the buffalo said “Go on to the bank of the Ganges.” Then they came to a horse and they thought that they would catch it and mount it, but it kicked and snorted; and they sang:—
“Dharmu tries to catch the horse:
But it kicks and runs away.
How shall we reach the Ganges?
O Karam Gosain, how far off are you?”
And the horse said “Go to the banks of the Ganges.” Then they saw an elephant but it would not let them approach, so they decided to push on straight for the river; and they saw under a banyan tree a large pot full of rupees, but they were so disheartened that they made no attempt to touch it; then they met a woman who asked where they were going and when she heard, she said “For twelve years I have had a pai measure stuck on my throat; ask Karam Gosain for me how I am to get rid of it,” and they promised; and going on they met a woman with a bundle of thatching grass stuck to her head; and she made them promise to ask Karam Gosain how she could be freed; then they met a woman with both her feet burning in a fire and another with a stool stuck fast to her back and they promised to enquire how these might be delivered.
 So at last they came to the Ganges and they stood on the bank and called to Karam Gosain; and when he came they caught hold of him and he said “Fie, what low caste person is touching me?” But they said. “It is no low caste person, but Dharmu.” Then they bathed him and anointed him with oil and turmeric and wrapped him in the new cloth which they had brought, and thus they persuaded him to return; so they rose up to go back, and Dharmu asked about the women whom they had met, and Karam Gosain said: “The woman has a stool stuck to her back because when visitors came she never offered them a seat; let her do so in future, and she will be freed; and the woman has her feet burning in the fire because she pushed the fuel into the fire with her foot; let her not do so in future, and she will be freed; and the woman has the thatching grass stuck to her head because when she saw a friend with straw sticking in her hair she did not tell her about it; let her do so in future and she will be freed; and the woman has the pai measure stuck to her throat because, when her neighbour wanted to borrow her measure, she would not lend it; let her do so in future and she will be freed.” And Karam Gosain asked whether they had seen an elephant and a horse and a buffalo and a cow and money and mangoes and figs and Dharmu said “Yes,” but that he had not been able to catch the animals and the fruit was bad. Karam Gosain promised them that on their way back they should take possession of all; and they did so and mounted on the elephant and returned to their home with great wealth. On their way they met the four women and told them how they could be saved from their troubles. The villagers welcomed Dharmu and he arranged a great feast and gave paddy to all the villagers to husk; but when they had boiled it the weather became cloudy so that they could not dry it, so they prayed to the sun and he at once shone out and dried the paddy.
Then a day was fixed and they prepared rice beer, and worshipped Karam Gosain and they danced all night and got very drunk and enjoyed themselves.

Source:http://santals.net/blog/?page_id=101
*************************************************************************

Share:
Copyright © The Santal Resources Page | Powered by Blogger Theme by Ronangelo