Online Santal Resource Page: the Santals identity, clans, living places, culture,rituals, customs, using of herbal medicine, education, traditions ...etc and present status.

The Santal Resource Page: these are all online published sources

Santal Gãota reaḱ onolko ńam lạgit́ SRP khon thoṛ̣a gõṛ̃o ńamoḱa mente ińaḱ pạtiạu ar kạṭić kurumuṭu...

Monday, June 27, 2016

When the Santhals rebelled:A story of annihilation and appropriation

Moyukh Mahtab 
“It was not war; they did not understand yielding. As long as their national drum beat, the whole party would stand, and allow themselves to be shot down. Their arrows often killed our men, and so we had to fire on them as long as they stood. When their drum ceased, they would move off a quarter of a mile; then their drums beat again, and they calmly stood till we came up and poured a few volleys into them. There was not a sepoy in the war who did not feel ashamed of himself."

The Scottish historian William Wilson Hunter, who was also a member of the Indian Civil Service, in his book Annals of Rural Bengal recorded the first hand testimony, quoted above, of officers, who with the military might of the British Raj, put down the Santhal Rebellion (also known as the Santhal Hool). June 30 marks the 161stanniversary of the day when the Santhals, choking under the pressure of practical serfdom due to the mahajani system, and with none of their grievances given importance by the administration, rose in revolt and demanded autonomy.
The Santhals, one of the oldest communities to make their home in Bengal, were largely agrarian people, who lived in and depended on forests. After the British Raj had taken over the administration of India, and taxes were levied on their traditional ways of living, small outbreaks of revolt had taken place, as they faced oppression from tax-collecting mahajans and zamindars. In 1832, the government demarcated the Damin I Koh region in present day Jharkhand in India and invited Santhals to settle in the area in order to reclaim the forest. A great exodus of Santhals from Cuttack, Dhalbhum, Manbhum, Hazaribagh, Midnapore etc. came to settle in the reserve due to promises of land and other economic amenities.
But the government had other plans in mind:“to ascertain what profits are now derived from the land.” (Bhagalpur Commissioner Report, 1836) The missionaries on the other hand sought their beliefs, hoping that “Christianity take firm root . . . in the forest and wilds of Rajmahal hills.” (Letter from the commissioner of Bhagalpur to the secretary of the government of Bengal, 1836) Soon, mahajans and zamindars as tax-collecting intermediaries dominated the economy and the lives of the region.
The Santhals have traditionally been described as peace loving, naïve people who had not learnt to lie. Their low literacy made them easy victims to corrupt money lending practices. Their lands were forcibly taken, they were lent money at exorbitant rates which they could never repay, they were forced into bonded labour, and generation after generation of Santhals had to live as serfs, cultivating the zamindar's land for little food and clothes. Many had no other recourse than to work for Indigo planters or for the frenzy of railway constructions that the British initiated.
 "The Santhal Insurrection - The 49th Regiment, Native Infantry, burning a Santhal village and recovering plunder," from the Illustrated London News, 1856

They had no recourse to the administration either. While the British lauded themselves on 'civilising the natives', the bureaucracy, the police, the court were all staunchly against the welfare of the Santhals. In 1855, under the leadership of two brothers, Sidhu and Kanoo, who mobilised 10,000 Santhals, they declared rebellion. It is important to note that first they had tried to settle their grievances through official channels, and only when they received no reply from the 'cheap and practical administration' (Hunter), did they decide to march in revolt.
What happened next was armed mutiny. The rebels decided to banish all traders and zamindars from their country, and demanded autonomy. Fights broke out, as the zamindars tried to retain their hold, and there were casualties on both sides. When news of their activities reached the administration, it sent troops to quell the rebellion. Against the bows and arrows came guns and thousands were shot down. Elephants were used to systematically destroy their villages. As Karl Marx observed in his Notes on Indian History, “Outbreak of the Santal, a half-savage tribe, in the Rajmahal Hills in Bengal; put down, after seven months' guerrilla warfare, in February 1856.”
And yet, much of what has been written, remembered and interpreted of the Santhal Rebellion of 1855 has been appropriation, first by the colonial British historians and then by the post-partition Indian national historians. Ranajit Guha observes how British historians, like Hunter, appropriated the rebellion as just another event in the “life-story of the Empire. . . The rebel has no place in this history as the subject of rebellion.” Hunter, though sympathetic to their plight, took the event as a life-lesson on how to make the British administration better and how the British enterprise was the answer to solving the problems of the natives. Guha further points out how post-independence historians later identified the rebellion as a pre-cursor to India's struggle for independence. What had been a conscious revolt of a people who took up arms demanding basic rights, was used as a tool for nationalist historiography: “all the popular struggles in rural India during the first hundred and twenty-five years of British rule [were appropriated] as the spiritual harbinger of the Indian National Congress.”(The prose of counter-insurgency, Subaltern Studies II) The Santhals demand for autonomy for themselves was at once lost and reinterpreted, for the 'greater good' of nationalist uprising, as Congress's  demand of independent India.
Indeed, peasant movements and revolts were, and are, often put down in history as spontaneous movements, when uneducated, apolitical groups of people break forth in anger, like natural phenomenon, and not as conscious decision makers. But, the Santhals of the Rajmahal Hills of Bengal did not revolt on a whim. The oppression on the Santhals, and other indigenous communities, has festered into open rebellion over and over again. The earlier revolts of Santhal leaders such as Paru Raja in Dinajpur, the Tebhaga or the Tonko movements, or the Munda rebellion of 1900, had all been mass movements by these communities to address their grievances, to claim what was theirs, and against the stripping of their ownership of land and being made tenants to rich mahajans and zamindars.

 Searching for rebel santhals. Antique print, 1856
Hunter praised the British government on making bonded labour illegal and providing them work in the railways and in tea plantations. Yet, bonded labour continued well into independent India, and tea-plantations only exploited the cheap indigenous labour. Nationalist history commemorates the struggle of the Santhal in the grand narrative of independence from the British, and yet did little to right the wrongs done to them.
Forced eviction from their lands, exploitation and discrimination from the middle and rich classes led to the Hool. However, has much changed, even as India erects statues of indigenous leaders and nationalist historians commemorate their contribution to independence? In Bangladesh, reports claim different numbers of the Santhal population—but all show that it is on a sharp decline. The majority of them, according to historian Mesbah Kamal (more than 60 percent), remain landless. They are discriminated socially, politically and economically. They still struggle to make authorities hear their plight as they try to keep hold of their khas lands, and money lenders exploit their poverty. What writer Mahasweta Devi described as the plight of the Munda's in her book Chotti Munda Ebong Tar Teer (Chotti Munda and his arrow), is representative of Santhals and most other indigenous communities even today: governments change, promises are made, and yet, it is the capitalist classes which ultimately have their way. Only in 2000, “musclemen of Local landlords—Hatem Ali and Shitesh Chandra Bhattacharya—killed Alfred Soren [a Santhal leader] at Bhimpur in Naogaon district as he tried to resist their bid to evict 22 indigenous families from the village.” Justice for Soren is yet to be served.
In truth, the administration has never been kind to these indigenous communities. The recent incidents in Banskhali and Nahar Punji speak of the same injustices: deprivation of land, forceful evictions and helplessness within the state machinery. Just this month more than 700 Khasi people were given eviction notices from their ancestral land. The colonial laws, with their added amendments, have now made these communities encroachers in their own land—the question of land still haunts the lives of these communities.
Santhals in Bangladesh and in India still celebrate the Hool and remember their leaders Sidhu and Kanoo every year, their songs speak of the time when they laid down their lives for their rights. And the state continues to exploit these people, depoliticising and appropriating their history, making them footnotes and denying them agency. Their demands of recognition as adivasis remain unheeded. Last year, in a celebration of the Hool, the Jatiya Adivasi Parishad (JAP) president Rabindranath Soren said, “Indigenous people face various types of discrimination while land grabbers are becoming more and more desperate to occupy their lands in absence of justice.”
In this context, the Santhal Rebellion of 1855 remains relevant today. More than a celebration of historical bravery, it is a reminder of what Sidhu and Kanoo fought for, and what is yet to be achieved.

The writer is a member of the editorial team, The Daily Star


Wednesday, June 22, 2016

কমে যাচ্ছে বাংলাদেশের সাঁওতাল জনসংখ্যা

দিনাজপুরের ফুলবাড়ীতে দিন দিন কমে যাচ্ছে আদিবাসী(সাঁওতাল) জনসংখ্যা। এক সময় এই উপজেলায় ৯৭টি আদিবাসী গ্রাম 
থাকলেও এখন আছে ৭২টি। জনসংখ্যা গত বিশ বছর আগে ৩১ হাজার থাকলেও এখন তা ১৪ হাজার নেমেছে। এভাবে দিন দিন 
কমে যাচ্ছে আদিবাসী জনসংখ্যা। সমতলের বাসিন্দাদের সঙ্গে সামাজিক বৈষম্য, ভূমি নিয়ে সমতলের বাসিন্দাদের সঙ্গে বিরোধকে 
কেন্দ্র করে অনেকে চলে যাচ্ছে দেশ ছেড়ে। এখনও যারা বসবাস করছেন তারা অধিকাংশই দারিদ্র্যর কষাঘাতে পুষ্টিহীনতায় ভুগছেন।
 যায় ফলে আদিবাসী নারীদের প্রজনন ক্ষমতা হারিয়ে ফেলছে। একারণে এই উপজেলায় আদিবাসী জনসংখ্যা গত ২০ বছরে ৫০ ভাগ
 নিচে নেমে গেছে। 
 একটি বেসরকারি সংস্থার তথ্য ও উপজেলা পরিসংখ্যান কার্যালয়ের তথ্য মোতাবেক বর্তমানে এই উপজেলায় বসবাস করছেন ১৪
 হাজার ১২০ জন আদিবাসী। বিদ্যালয়গামী উপযোগী আদিবাসী শিশুর সংখ্যা ৩৭০২ জন। এদের মধ্যে বিদ্যালয়ে ভর্তি হয়েছে ২৬৩১
 জন। নিয়মিত বিদ্যালয়ে যায় ১ হাজার ৭৫ জন। এদের মধ্যে ৫ম শ্রেণিতে ঝরে পড়ে ৫০ ভাগ শিক্ষার্থী। বাকি ৫০ ভাগের মধ্যে
 ৩০ ভাগ ঝরে পড়ে এসএসসিতে। বাকি ২০ ভাগ উচ্চশিক্ষার জন্য লড়াই করলেও সফলতা পেয়েছে ৫ ভাগ মাত্র। বর্তমানে
 উপজেলার ৭টি ইউনিয়নে ৭২টি আদিবাসী গ্রাম রয়েছে। এর মধ্যে এলুয়াড়ী ইউনিয়নে ১২টি, আলাদীপুর ই্উনিয়নে ৯টি,
 কাজিহাল ইউনিয়নে ১৭টি, বেতদীঘি ইউনিয়নে ১০টি, খয়েরবাড়ী ইউনিয়নে ৮টি, দৌলতপুর ইউনিয়নে ৬টি ও শিবনগর ইউনিয়নে
 ১০টি গ্রাম রয়েছে।
অথচ ১৯৯৬ থেকে ১৯৯৮ সালের তথ্য অনুযায়ী এই উপজেলায় আদিবাসী গ্রাম ছিল ৯৭টি। তার মধ্যে এলুয়াড়ী ইউনিয়নে ছিল
 ১৫টি, আলাদীপুর ইউনিয়নে ১৭টি, কাজিহালে ২১টি, বেতদিঘীতে ১৮টি, খয়েরবাড়ীতে ১৪টি, দৌলতপুরে ৮টি, শিবনগরে
 ও পৌরসভায় ২টি। কিন্তু আদিবাসী জনসংখ্যা কমে যাওয়ায় আদিবাসী গ্রামগুলো কমে গেছে এবং অনেক গ্রামগুলো এখন
 পূর্বের থেকে ছোট হয়ে আসছে। উপজেলার বিভিন্ন আদিবাসীদের সঙ্গে কথা বলে জানা গেছে, সমতলের বাসিন্দাদের সঙ্গে 
তাদের দীর্ঘদিনের ভূমি নিয়ে বিরোধ চলে আসছিল। বিরোধকে কেন্দ্র করে ইতিমধ্যেই অনেক আদিবাসী হত্যাকা-ের শিকার হয়েছে।
 এ কারণেই অনেকে নিরাপত্তার অভাব মনে করে ভিটামাটি বিক্রি করে তারা পার্শ্ববর্তী দেশে চলে গেছে।
এছাড়া এখন যারা বসবাস করে সে সকল আদিবাসীরা অধিকাংশই দরিদ্র। খোঁজ নিয়ে জানা গেছে সংসারের হাল টানতে 
আদিবাসী নারীরাই অন্যের বাড়ীতে মজুরী কাজ করে। তারা যে পরিমান শ্রম দেয় সেই পরিমাণ পুষ্টি জনিত খাদ্য না পাওয়ায়
 ৩৫-৪০ বছরের মধ্যেই তাদের প্রজনন ক্ষমতা হারিয়ে ফেলে। যার ফলে আদিবাসী জনসংখ্যা বৃদ্ধি না পেয়ে দিন দিন কমে 
উপজেলা নির্বাহী অফিসার কার্যালয় সুত্রে জানা গেছে, আদিবাসীদের জীবন মান উন্নয়ের জন্য ৭টি বেসরকারী সংস্থা 
(এনজিও) কাজ করছে।উপজেলার সুধী সমাজের নাগরিকরা মনে করেন,আদিবাসীদের নিয়ে বেসরকারি সংস্থাগুলো কাগজে
 কলমে কাজ করছে। কিন্তু এর বাস্তব রুপ আদিবাসী জনগোষ্ঠিদের মধ্যে পড়ে নাই। যার ফলে আদিবাসীরা এই অঞ্চল থেকে
 দিনদিন কমে যাচ্ছে। আদিবাসীদের জীবন মান উন্নয়ন করতে হলে, আদিবাসী সমাজকে পরিবর্তন করে মূল ধারায় ফিরিয়ে
 আনতে হবে। তাহলেই আদিবাসীরা সামাজিক বৈষম্যের হাত থেকে রক্ষা পাবে। 

Friday, June 10, 2016


Babon mẽna, babon tạńgĩya
babon koeoga ar gapa ,
santali pạrsi ropha do̠ho̠e re
roṛa bon ạḍi sapha.
Babon manao babon batao
e̠ṭak̕ak̕ ho̠ro̠p ciki
santali ro̠man ho̠ro̠p tahen tuluc̕
cedak̕ ado bon ṅjikik̕.

mo̠n o̠nto̠r reak̕ jo̠to̠ aṛãń
ro̠ṛa bon sapha kate
o̠na lạgit̕ te ũchạnena ńeto̠k̕
HO̠Ṛ KATHA gate.
Santal somajren jo̠to̠ ganḍra tiju
lebet̕ lo̠ṭo̠m kowa bon
Ceṭer saḍe lekan aṛạń saḍe re
HO̠Ṛ KATHAE go̠ṛo̠wabon.

Ńũṭuk̕ heṛem santali pạrsi
ropha do̠ho̠e lạgit̕
ạ̃ḍi ãṭ khaṭao kate
benão keda ko bhit̕.
Ạḍi jharkaṭ santal ko̠ṛa
so̠mo̠r bạbu kanae
sĩń ńĩndạ haro̠n kate
so̠pṭoyare benão kedae.

JO̠HARAM kạnạń e̠ bir banṭa
o̠nto̠r reak̕ gaṛh kho̠n
dãṛẽyiń samańam kan rạskạ salak̕
go̠ṭa o̠nto̠r jiwi mo̠n.

Bãńcão tahen me tire juge
santal jạt̕ ko talare
am lekan bir janamo̠k̕ ko jeno
 jug ke jug re.
E̠ CANDO BO̠NGA jhalkaoaeme
amak̕ jo̠to̠ sạhại
ar hõ jemo̠nẽ kạmi daṛeak̕
santal kowak̕ bhạlại

Thursday, June 9, 2016

Santali Keyboard For Android

Type Santali with the Santali Android Keyboard
  1. Download (Ho̠ṛ Katha Santali Android Keyboard)and Install
  2. Open ‘settings‘ option of your smart phone.
  3. Then open Language and Input option.
  4. Check the Santali.
  5. Now you are ready to use!

There are two Santali Android Keyboard
1. Jelly Bean (Android 4.1)
2. Android Version: Ice-cream Sandwich to Lollipop MR_1 ( Android 4.0 to Lollipop MR_1)

Developed By: Samar M Soren.
Download from:

Download from: Ho̠ṛ Katha ( Android Upper Version)
                              Ho̠ṛ Katha ( Android Lower Version)  

Tuesday, June 7, 2016

Santali Android Typing Software: fast yourself with World classical alphabet English

Santali Android Typing Software: fast yourself with World classical alphabet English

Santali Keyboard For Android Mobile/Devices

Nowa barea Santali Typing Software benao bakhra Samar M Soren ińaḱ mon-ontor khon sarhao ar sạgun johar. Noa horop tege dhạriti reaḱ joto khon ạkilan puthi ko olakana. São são tege dhạrtiren Santal kõ hõ ạḍi alga tege ạkilan puthiko reaḱ ạkil hameṭ são-sãote algatege ko ōl daṛewaka.
Okoe ko ko men - noa do CHRISTIAN kowaḱ HOROP KANA. Tahole, Iń doń mena- O̠nko do Christian dhorom h̃o bako baḍaea. Jesus Christ Janam khon aema Sae Serma Laha khon ge ROMAN SCRIPT/HOROP beanoakana. AR Jesus Christaḱ katha se SONOT BIBEL do ARAMAIK HOROP tege olakana. Onde khon dhartiren joto parsiren manwa ko lạgit́ apnar pạrsi ar horop te dhorom kạmi ạcu-calaoakana.Hopor reaḱ do jãhãn bạṛić bạnuḱa.
Scientific theory se jinis re okoe ko dhorom ko sendraeda ōnoko tis ho bako laha daṛewaḱa. Cedak ́je - jaoge jingi se mãhã khemao reaḱ joto jinis ar theory koge Engreg kowaḱkana. Nebetar joto disom ren raj ko ho GOBLALIZATION theory lakatege rajosṭi ko calaoeda.
Dhạrti reaḱ lilkar são-são tege abo Santal ko hõ laha idiḱ hoyoḱ tabon. Ạḍi alga tege SANTAL ANDROID TYPING SOFTWARE te apnar katha bon ōl daṛewaká.

Santali Android Typing Software babod MUṬHẠN PUTHI ( FB) re Ōlakan kathako:

Developed By: Samar M Soren.
Download from:
Download from: Ho̠ṛ Katha ( Android Upper Version)
                              Ho̠ṛ Katha ( Android Lower Version)  
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