Online Santal Resource Page: the Santals identity, clans, living places, culture,rituals, customs, using of herbal medicine, education, traditions ...etc and present status.

The Santal Resource Page: these are all online published sources

Santal Gãota reaḱ onolko ńam lạgit́ SRP khon thoṛ̣a gõṛ̃o ńamoḱa mente ińaḱ pạtiạu ar kạṭić kurumuṭu...

Sunday, September 18, 2011

Members Guestbook Ho̠ṛ Ho̠po̠n koak̕ Pạris ar Khũṭ (Septs/Subsepts of Santals)

Joto kobon baḍargea Ho̠ṛ ho̠po̠n do ge̠lbar Pạris rebon hạṭiń akana. Menkhan mimit̕ pạris do̠ arhõ aema khũṭ re hạṭiń akana. Baḍaeam oka khũt (subclan) ren kanam?

### Every Santal knows there are 12 Santal septs, but how many of us know about sub-septs? Do you know which sub-septs you belong to? ###

Hãsdak̓-

Sub septs: Badaṛ, Beḍwar, Baḍwar, Cilbindạ, Chil Lunḍạ, Gaṛ, Jihu, Jugi, Kạhu, Kãṛã, Khe̠rwaṛ, Gujiạ, Keḍwar, Kiḍwạr, Kuhi, Kundạ, Mahananda, Mạnjhi-khil, Naeke-khil, Nij, O̠bo̠r, Ok̓, Piṭkanḍa, Piṭi Khanḍa, Rok̓-lutur, Sada, Sãk, So̠le̠, Tạhi-jhạṛi

Murmu-

Sub septs: Badaṛ, Biṭōl, Boara, Bowar, Copyar, Dãte̠la, Gajaṛ, Gaṛ, Hạnḍi, Jahe̠r, Jihu, Jugi, Jugdi, Kaḍa, Kharhara, Koaṛa, Koṭha, Kuḍạm, Lahe̠r, Lat̕, Mạhut, Mạnjhi-khil, Naeke-khil, Nij, Oara, O̠bo̠r, Ok̓, Poaṛ, Ponḍ, Sada, Samak’-saṅ, Saṅ, Sarjo̠m, Sạu, Sokhear, So̠le̠, So-tear, Ṭikạ or Tilo̠k, Ṭurku-lumạṅ, Ṭuṭi sarjom; there are many more some says 66.

Kisku-

Sub septs: Aḍ, Badaṛ, , Biṭōl, Gaṛ, Jabe, Jihu, Kãṛã, Karkusạ, Katwa, Laher, Lat̕, Mạńjhi-khil, Naeke-khil, Nij, O̠bo̠r, Ok̕, Patal, Pạṭi, Raj, Rok̕-lutur, Sada, So̠n-ṭikạ

He̠mbro̠m-

Sub septs: Badaṛ, Biṭol, Casa, Dãtela, Gaṛ, Guạ, Guạ-Soren, Hạnḍi, Haṭ, Kũạ̃r, Laher, Lat̕, Mạnjhi-khil, Naeke-khil, Naeke-khil Guạ, Nij, Ninạr, O̠bo̠r, Rok̓-lutur, Sada, Sidup̓, So̠le̠, Ṭhạkur

Mạrnḍi-

Sub septs: Babṛẽ, Badaṛ, Badoli-Ṭikạ, Bhoso, Biṭōl, Buru-beret̓, Gaḍa, Gaṛ, Goḍa, He̠se̠l, Jo̠no̠k̓, Jugi, Kaḍa, Keḍwar, Khanḍa, Khanḍạ jogao, Khara, Kulkhi, Lạkin, Mạn̕jhi-khil, Miru, Naeke-khil, Naeke-khil-goḍa, Nij, O̠bo̠r, Ok̓, Ponḍ, Rok̓-lutur, Rot̓, Rupạ, Sada, Sidup̓, Ṭikạ, Ṭurku-lumạṅ, Miru-Baha, Mera-Chakka.(sesak̕ barea do̠ Orissa ren boeha Raj N Mardi ye̠ juṭuć akada)

So̠ren-

Sub septs: Badaṛ, Bạchi, Bedea, Biṭōl, Cahel, Dãtela, Ganḍe, Gaṛ, Guạ, Haṭ, Jihu, Jugi, Khanḍa, Lat̓, Luṛkạ, Mạilạ, Mal, Mạnjhi-khil, Mãṛ, Munḍu, Naeke-khil, Nij, Norko Lumạṅ, O̠bo̠r, Ok̓, Ponḍ, Ro̠k̓ lutur, Sada, Sada-sidup̓, Sãk, Saṅ, Sar, Sidup̓, So̠n, Ṭikạ, Ṭurku-lumạṅ, Rạnu (Orissa ren boeha Manotan Kadey Soren e̠ juṭuć akada)

Ṭuḍu-

Sub septs: Aṅgariạ, Babṛẽ, Baske, Bhokta, Biṭōl, Cigi, Curuc̕, Dãtela, Gaṛ, Jhumria, Jugi, Kharhar, Kuḍạm, Laher, Laṛ, Lat̓, Mạndạṛiạ, Mạnjhi-khil, Naeke-khil, Nij, O̠bo̠r, Ok̓, Poeta, Po̠ṭo̠m, Sada-cigi, Ṭikạ, Tilo̠k, Ṭurku-lumạṅ

Baske-

Sub septs: Bhiḍi, Bhitạr, Bindạṛ, Biṭōl, Gaṛ, ̠He̠nde̠, Jahe̠r, Jihu, Kaḍwar, Kuhi (Kạ̃hu), Lat̓, Mạnjhi-khil, Nij, O̠bo̠r, Ok̓, Po̠ṭo̠m, Sada, Sạru-gaḍa, Suṛe, So̠n, Ṭhunṭạ,

Besra-

Sub septs: Baske, Bhinạṛ, Bindạṛ, Biṭōl, Gaṛ, Guạ, Kạhu, Khanḍa, Kuhi, Kuṛhi, Lat̓, Mạnjhi-khil, Naeke-khil, Nij, O̠bo̠r, Ok̓, Po̠ṭo̠m, Sada, Sạru-gaḍa, Suṛe, Ṭhunṭạ,

Cõ̠ṛẽ-

Sub septs: Bindạṛ, Biṭōl, Cacarhat̓, Copear, Guạ, Guạ- He̠mbro̠m, Guạ-Soren, He̠mbro̠m-kũạ̃r, Kạhu, Lat̓, Mạnjhi-khil, Nij, O̠bo̠r, Ok̓, Sada, Sindur, Ṭhạkur

Pạ̃uria-

Sub septs: Bhitạr, Biṭōl, Cauriạ, Gaṛ, Lat̓, Mạnjhi-khil, Nij, Munḍu, Naeke-khil, O̠bo̠r, Ok̓, Po̠ṭo̠m, Sada, Sidup̓, Sona

Bedea- Ge̠lbarak̕ pạris. Eṭak̕ eṭak̕ ren hoṛ judạ judạ ko lạia. Bedea (Gondwar)/Gandwar. ### People of different places differ in the name and Identity of 12th Septs. Bedea (Gondwar)/Gandwar###

*L O Skrefsrud "Bedea" me̠nte̠ye̠ o̠lkeda (Santal Pargana re̠nko lại leka) Dumka Jilạ ren Kolean Guruwak̕ katha lekate̠ noko Bedea Pạris doko at̕ena, (Mare Hapṛamko Reak̕ Katha, first published in1887),

###*L O Skrefsrud writes name of 12th sept as Bedea (as accepted in Santal Pargana) and according to his source Guru Kolean from Dumka District, they are lost, (Mare Hapṛamko Reak̕ Katha, first published in1887, translated into English as Tradition and Institutions of Santals by P O Bodding, published 1942)###

*Campbell‘s Santali-English Dictionary lekate hoṛ ho̠po̠n tinre̠ Campa kho̠n Madho Siṅ bo̠to̠rteko dạṛkeda nok dok sarec tahẽyena. (mit̕ṭen So̠re̠n khũṭ reak̕ nútum hõ Bedea kana)

.###*Campbell‘s Santali-English Dictionary says it is name given to those Santals who refused to accompany the rest of tribe when they fled from Campa through fear of Madho Siṅ. (It is also name of a So̠re̠n subsept).###

*In Tribal Heritage: A Study of Santals, W.J. Culsahw, re o̠l menak̕a, Bankura (WB) ren ko manaoa, Ḍoṅka or Bhaduli do̠ kathae ge̠lbarak̕ khũṭ reak̕ ńutum kana. Menkhan jo̠to̠ ho̠ṛ do̠ bako manaoa J Culshaw Bankura re̠ye̠ tahẽkan okte Bedea sobdo do okoe hõ bako baḍekan tahẽkana.

###*In Tribal Heritage: A Study of Santals, W.J. Culsahw got the name of Ḍoṅka or Bhaduli from Bankura (WB), but at that time also people were not in agreement. His narrator guessed that probably Ḍoṅka took the name of Bhaduli. He found one Bhaduli who observed all the traditions and taboos of Mạrnḍi. And Bedea term in Bankura at that time was unknown###

Khũṭ reak̕ jo̠s ar mo̠tlo̠b / Relevance of sub-septs

1. Bapla- Koṛa do̠ eṅgatak̕ khũṭ ren kuṛi bae bapla daṛeaea judạ pạris ren kanre hõe. Judi am Guạ Hembro̠m kan khane̠m ar am go̠go̠ do̠ Nij Murmu kanae, am do Nij Murmu kuṛi bapla mana getama, menkhan eṭak̕ khũṭ ren Murmu kuṛi do̠m bapla daṛeae gea; Onka leka miseram do̠ uni koṛa tuluc̕ bapla baṅ hoyok̕taea o̠ko̠e ren eṅgat do̠ Guạ Hembro̠m kane̠. Menkhan ne̠betar tinạk’hoṛko pańjaeda o̠ho̠ń me̠nkea. ###Marriage- one cannot marry a girl of same sub-septs as own mother’s, despite sept or PẠRIS being different. (If you are Guạ Hembro̠m and your mother is Nij Murmu, you can marry a Murmu girl but not Nij Murmu and your sister cannot marry any boy whose mother is Guạ Hembro̠m but can marry a boy whose mother is Hembro̠m of other sub-septs or sub-clan) I do not know how much people follow it nowadays###

2. Mimit̕ khũt ren judạ judạ “KHŨṬ se Abge” Boṅga menak̕ kotakoa, oko̠eak̕ ńutum do eṭak̕ khũt ren hoṛ bako lại akoa. Sewa dhara hõ judạ judạ gea ar e̠ke̠n baba hoṛ ko se̠le̠dok̕a. “Abge Boṅga” do̠ khũṭ re̠n koak̕ bhạlạiye ńel todarōta. Khũṭ reak´ehobok̕ katha ar karo̠n hõ judạgea. Dewa-sewa chaḍa eṭak̕ hora ko hõ̠ judạ-judạgea. ###Different khũṭ or sub-clan has different Boṅga, and his name is never told to people outside the sub-clan, or khũṭ. Way of worship also differs. Only male members of the sub-clan are allowed to participate in this. “Abge Boṅga” is responsible for prosperity and well being of the sub-clan. Myth of origin and other tradition not directly related to Gods also differ.###

3. Baḍha gidrạ (Adopted child)- Judi jãhãe ren gidrạ bạnuk̕ ko khan, pạhilre ako gusṭi se khũṭ ren khon ge ko hara joṅ reak̕ ko kurumuṭuia. Eṭak̕ khũt ren gidrại tahe̠n khan, uni do “Boṅga Talaye̠” hoyok̕a e̠nte̠ pạhil do eṭak̕ Boṅga ko tahẽkantaea. Onkoe deakoa ar nawa apatren Boṅga ṭhe̠ne̠ jamaṛok̕a. (Disạipe adom adom jaegare “BOṄGA TALA” reak̕ mane do “gujuk̕” kana. Boṅgatalayenae mane ho̠ṛkoak̕ ḍera bạgi katet̕ Boṅga ko talare̠ye̠ tahe̠n kana.) ###Adoption- If any couple are childless and opt for adoption, usually they adopt a boy from husband's relatives. In such cases, the boy is of same sub-clan as his adopting father. He already has full access to his "Boṅgas" specially "Abge Boṅga"(not be confused with Simạ Boṅga and oṛak̓ Boṇ̇ga).
If one adopts a child from different sub-septs, he has to undergo the rite of "Boṅga Tala", he has to leave his previous Abge Boṅga and worship new Abge.

{Please do not be confused with another meaning of “Boṅga Tala” used in some places. I have heard that from Kolkata radio- Santali Akhṛa. Here ‘Boṅga Tala’ means a being dead or abiding among Boṅgas}###

4. Hasa Ho̠k- Ale ato reak̕ dhara lekate Isại (Christian) hoṛ ko hõ ako khũt ren kho̠n ge harajoṅ lạgit̕ gidrạko hatao koa. Judi eṭak̕ khũt ren kan khane koṛa do̠ apatak̕ jumi jaega bae ạidạri daṛeak̕a. Jumi do khũṭ rege tahena. Onate apnar gusṭi/gutiạkhũṭ ren bako ńam len khan kuṛi gidrạ ko baḍha koa. *Iń tala Haṛamba ren do eken kuṛi ko̠ tahẽ̠ kana ar Maraṅ Haṛamba re̠n do jo̠to̠ ko go̠ć maraoena. Onate Maraṅ Haṛamba wak̕ jumi-jaega do̠ ale gele̠ ńam keda. In’ tala Haṛamba ren kuṛi ko do eken apatak̕ jumi geko ạidạri keda.* ### ??Land right- In our village I have seen all adopting from own close relatives (even among Christians who do not worship Abge Boṅga). And if adopted from outside the "Khũṭ̣" boy can not inherit Land. That will go to adopting father's relatives. If a girl has Ghar-Jãwãe, their children inherit only father’s property. If any uncle’s and grand uncle’s whole bõs or lineage is finished then girl cannot inherit that property. Idea behind it may be that land remains in the hand of same khũṭ or bõs. This may vary place to place.
*One of my grandfather's brothers had only daughters, and another brother's children and grandchildren all died. SO we got the property not my aunt’s children
*

Added by Mr Ranjeet Hãsdak̕

Regarding the importance of sub-septs, I will like to enumerate a few:

1- Mimit̕ khũṭrenko akoak̕ khũṭ ehobok̕ reak̕ judạ judạ lại cal katha menak̕ takoa.
#
Each of the sub-septs, has a distinct myth regarding its origin,#

2- Khũṭ taeno̠m “Abge Boṅga se Khũṭ Boṅga” hõ ko judạ gea, je leka 'Acrạli', 'Dharsanḍa', 'Kuḍạm kuḍrạ̠', 'Manbaha'. Menako-"Mit̓ khũṭ ren kanale, mit̓ khonḍ rele boṅgaya" #The various sub-septs are also linked up with the worship of a different Abge̠ Bo̠nga or Khũṭ Bo̠nga. This is expressed in a santal saying, meaning, "We are of the same stock, we perform sacrifice in the same circle." (Source: P.O. Bodding's 'A Santal Dictionary')#

Legcar hõ be̠garok̓ kana, je leka sohrae (se baha) renak̓ niom judak̓ kana, okoe do um hilōk̕ ko boṅgana okoe do dakae hilōk̓ ar je̠l daka hõ adom hoṛ do deo bha̠̣gin joto hoṛ ko̠ emako̠a ar adom hoṛ do deo bha̠gin bako̠ emakoa. Sada khũṭren ko do Sindur bako bebo̠hara, baṅ do bapla jokhen baṅ do boṅgae jokheć. Ado̠m ado̠m Murmu ko je leka Nij Murmu, Jaher Murmu Sada Murmu, Mạńjhi Khil Murmu, Naeke Khil Murmu do̠ carcala oṛak̕ bako benaoa. Ar eṭak̓-eṭak̓ khũṭ renak̓ dag hõ juda gea, ente adom khũṭ do pãera dag, adom khũṭ do nahel dag, se ãṛgom, ãrãṛ, ka̠pi, emanteak̓ dag me̠nak̓ takoa,
#
During Sohrae (or Baha) their custom differes, some sacrifice on the day of ceremonial bathing (bath day) some on the day of daka (literally rice cooking), some distribute sacrificed meat some do not. The various sub-septs also have customs which differentiate them from others, e.g., the Sada subclans do not apply sindoor at the time of marriage nor during any sacrificial offerings. Some of the Murmu Khũṭs ? Nij Murmu, Jaher Murmu, Sada Murmu, Manjhi Khil Murmu and Naeke Khil Murmu ? cannot build houses with four cornered roofs. (Source: J. Troisi's 'Tribal Religion'),

Source: http://santali.webs.com/subseptsanditsrelevance.htm
******************************************************************************************************************
Share:

0 comments:

Post a Comment

Copyright © The Santal Resources Page | Powered by Blogger Theme by Ronangelo